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The Sun in Tetrapylons

A Report on Discovering the Relationship between Tetrapylons, Time and Variation in the Declination of the Sun

The Sun in TetrapylonsReza Moradi Ghiasabadi is a well-known Iranian researcher with a novel insight into History and Archaeology. After becoming familiar with his works, I asked him to let me translate the report of one of his research projects explaining his theory on the functionality of the Persian tetrapylons as solar structures. This theory has been confirmed by some experts and many evidences, validating it, have been found. The first part of this book is the translation from the last Persian edition of the book The Persian Tetrapylons published in 2010. The second part of this book is published herein for the first time except Chapter 13, Heidentor Tetrapylon, which has been published as a paper in Journal of Persia Digest (2012).

Ghiasabadi begins The Persian Tetrapylons with an old poem: “That building on the hillside is a place for time and time measurement.” This poem is from Shahnameh, authored by Ferdowsi, who is the greatest Persian epic poet in the tenth century AD. Ferdowsi narrates the ancient historical-storied events of Iranian people in Shahnameh. Ferdowsi quotes the mentioned poem from Zal, who is a Persian mythological character whose functions relate to the time and Zurvan. In fact, Ghiasabadi starts his book with a thousand-year-old poem which describes a building on a hillside with calendrical functionality, so this poem can be an allegory of a tetrapylon. […]

What is Iran


Some questions are simple superficially but complicated fundamentally. One of the most complicated issues in historical studies is clarifying the meanings of countries’ proper names. There are three reasons for this complexity: first, differences in phonetics and pronunciation of names in different languages; second, the evolution of names in written and oral language; and third (but most important), changes in the subject that a name denotes and use of one name for another important thing. The names Iran and Persia have an interesting history full of changes in pronunciation, meaning, and application. Here we rely upon the available resources to track the evolutionary course of these names and find an answer to the question, “What is Iran?” […]

The Order of Darius the Great: Preface


In the epitaphs left from the reign of the Achaemenid king, Darius the Great, one can clearly find instances of their thoughtfulness and wise belief. Some of these concepts had been present in the epitaphs of ancient east and shows that these concepts were in favour for a long period of time and that the public accepted them too. These words and expressions are inside other epitaphs and seldom-repeated speeches, but they are seldom given enough attention. In this book, I have tried to gather these original and ancient speeches that represent the view and mindset of the people from ancient times, having passed through the scrutiny of Darius the Great and other elite, and present them in more detail and more extensively as they deserve. […]

Recognizing Solar Relations at Heidentor Tetrapylon in Austria


A European tetrapylon of the Roman Empire from the middle of the 4th century AD has been identified as the first tetrapylon used for calendric purposes in Europe, and some other sites are being studied. I believe that just as the study of the Persian tetrapylons led to the finding related to this Roman tetrapylon, special features of Roman tetrapylons will also help to reveal unexplored aspects of Persian tetrapylons. This tetrapylon is located in eastern Austria and is called Heidentor (Pagan Gate or Heathens’ Gate). The name Heidentor is an evolved form of Heydnisch Tor, which means “Pagan Gate” in German. Having been built so early in the Christian Era, it is believed to have been constructed by pagan non-Christians (probably followers of Mitra). […]

Découverte de la seconde inscription Persane géométrique

A Shahryar, d’Iran, une inscription géométrique a été découverte dans le tell de Kaftarlou, région d’Akhtarabad. En raison de sa similarité avec l’écriture dite géométrique des tablettes d’argile du site de Suse, elle est estimée remonter à ۵۰۰۰ ans. Ce n’est cependant que la seconde inscription en ancienneté trouvée en Iran, la plus ancienne ayant été également découverte dans le nord de la province du Kurdistan iranien, à Kan Tcharmî. Selon l’archéologue Reza Moradi Ghiasabadi, la similarité des signes utilisés avec ceux de Suse permettent d’estimer cette inscription à au moins 4200 to 4500 ans. Mais d’un autre côté, le fort taux d’oxydation peut aussi signifier que l’inscription est plus ancienne. […]

Pathology of Persian Empire’s Ancient Heritage


Mr. Reza Moradi Ghiasabadi, an astroarcheologist and researcher in historian articles and 37 books about the ancient Iran’s archeology, and culture. He has authored books and articles about Iranian structures with engraved calendars, astrological calculations and symbols, squared-based arcs or chartaqi, old Avesta, astronomical hypotheses, Naqshe-Rostam Observatory, Aryan migration, and other topics. In recent years, he has mostly concentrated on the ancient Iranian calendrical structures with astronomical inscriptions that show sunrises and sunsets at the beginning of each season. They are in fact solar calendars of their own kind. Besides researches in such fields, he has also writhen articles about other cultural aspect of the ancient epigraphs or Persian inscriptions, ancient myth and feasts with astrological roots. […]

La sauvegarde de la chronologie Iranienne


Tout au long de leur histoire, les Iraniens ont accordé une grande importance aux phénomènes naturels pour l’élaboration de leur calendrier. De l’Antiquité à nos jours, de nombreux systèmes chronologiques ont été successivement mis en place. Le système chronologique actuel de l’Iran (qui est un calendrier solaire) peut être considéré comme l’un des calendriers le plus exact du monde en lien étroit avec les cycles de la nature. En approfondissant les divers calendriers persans, une divergence se fait jour concernant leur premier jour ainsi que le nombre de jours de chaque mois. A titre d’exemple, là où la chronologie solaire est considérée comme la mesure de base, le premier jour est différent pour chacun des calendriers : calendrier Kouhdashti : le 4 Farvardin (23 mars), calendrier Tabari : le 2 Mordâd (23 juillet), calendrier Deylami : le 17 Mordâd (7 août), calendrier saisonnier de Kâshân et Natanz [1] : le 1 Esfand (19 février), etc. Néanmoins, l’important est que le titre et l’ordre des jours et des mois soient plus ou moins similaires dans tous ces calendriers. En outre, dans le calendrier persan chaque jour a son nom, 1er jour du mois s’appelle Hormoz, le 2ème jour Bahman, le 3ème jour Ordibehesht [2], même s’ils ne sont plus utilisés de nos jours. […]

Niasar Tetrapylon


Chartaqi of Niasar located near the city of Kashan (Fig. 1.1) and was constructed during the late Parthian or early Sassanid Dynasties′ eras. Its plan is square in shap. There are, however, some theories that state that in ancient times Zorvanists used this place for their religious practices. Near this Chartaqi, there is a shrine and holy tree (plantain) and also a fountain that makes it some what a holy place. Also near Chartaqi, there is a modern observatory. Today Niasar is place for people who like astronomy in Iran. Every year Chartaqi of Niasar hosts a large number of Iranians that gather to cherish their ancestral way of life and to mark the observance of sunrise in summer and winter solstice (Fig. 3.1, 3.2). […]

Discovery of 3000-Years old Board-Games and a Compass-Rose in Persian Gulf’s Kharg Island


LONDON, (CAIS) — An ancient four-pointed compass-rose showing directions of ‘four cardinal points’ and a number of board-games carved on rocks discovered in the Iranian island of Kharg in the Persian Gulf, reported Persian service of CHN on Saturday.
The discovery was made by Shahram Eslami, a local and a member of Kharg’s Friends of Cultural Heritage. The relics were studied and their ancient origins identified by Dr. Reza Moradi Ghiasabadi. “The engravings are between 2000 and 3000 years old. The first discovered carving is located beside an ancient road which is a four-pointed compass-rose showing directions of four cardinal points within a square-shape with rounded angles setting, 50x50cm in diameters. Some sections of the compass-rose have been damaged, apparently as the result of a cracks in the rock,” said Ghiasabadi. […]

Discovery of the Second Persian Geometrical Inscription


The second Persian geometrical inscription which was carved in Kaftarli (Kaftarlou) hill have been discovered in Akhtarabad region in Shahryar. Due to the similarity of this geometrical writing with those previously found in Susa clay stamps and Jiroft’s inscription, experts estimate that this newly discovered geometrical inscription must have dated back to at least 5000 years ago. After Kan Charmee inscription which was discovered previous year in northern Kurdistan, this is the second geometrical inscription ever found in Iran. Regarding the antiquity of this inscription, Reza Moradi Ghiasabadi, archeologist and researcher, says: “Based on the signs implemented in creating this geometrical writing and its similarity to Susa stamps, it is believed that it must have belonged to 4200 to 4500 years ago. On the other hand, due to the rate of oxidization, we give the possibility that the inscription must have been more ancient.” […]

A Comparison of Touran Tattoos to Verses from the Shahnameh


Archeological excavations in East Central Asia in Pazyryk have led to the discovery of tattoos on humans’ bodies. The categorization of the tattoos and related graves can lead one to guess that they were not just for decoration but were an indication of their owner’s indentity. The tattoos designs are mostly of animals like tigers, rams, and fish along with mythic designs like winged horses. This article compares these designs with those on the arms of the heroes in the Shahnameh. It is notable that these historical finds were excavated from the tombs where the famous Pazyryk carpet, dating on the Achaemenid era, was discovered. […]

Winged Globe


Everybody knows the ancient Winged Globe (Winged Disk). In it’s common kind there is a globe with two wings at it’s both sides and a god in the middle of that which sometime has a ring or flower in her hand and a star figure on top of her head .Winged Globe chart had been seen from ninth century BC at all western parts of Persian lands. But her different main parts like Globe, Wing, god had their own usage at more ancient times. Globe’s figure or medial tassel gets vision from sun which the origin of many of the ancient believes and we can see its effect on today’s praying. We can see symbol of sun without globe/ disk or anything else is so many charts which the most typical one is chart of quintet Lulluian at Sar-e Pol-e Zahab. […]

Oldest Inscription of Cyrus Translated to Persian Language


The oldest inscription of Cyrus the Great in which his conquests were carved in Neo Babylonian or Akkadian language chronologically has been translated into Persian language. The most ancient inscription of Cyrus the Great, the Achaemenid king (559-530 BC), in which the conquests of Cyrus was written in chronological order in Neo Babylonian language has been translated in Persian language. Reza Moradi Ghiasabadi, astro -archeoloigst and researcher in historian studies, who has undertaken this major project, told CHN: “Nabonid-Cyrus chronology is an earthen inscription in Neo Babylonian (Akkadian) language which was written by order of Cyrus the Great and now is being kept in British Museum in London. Destruction of great parts of this inscription over time has made the decoding of some parts of this tablet impossible. The detailed chronology of Cyrus the Great’s conquests which was unearthed in Babylon’s royal palace is even older than the famous Cyrus Cylinder. By referring to versions which have been already translated into English language and its original text in Babylonian language, we succeeded in interpreting the inscription to Persian language for the first time.” […]

Farr-e Kayani


From long times ago and between different nations and religious there was a tradition in their paintings. They draw a beams of light around the heads of their holly men and kings .In Iranian (Persian) believes and writings it is called Farr lightness from god is called Farr that whoever can have it has the capacity of being leadership .Sa¢ alebi called it “God’s lucky lights”. In Avesta there is special part for describing and praying Farr. «Zamyad yasht/ kayan yasht/ Khvarena yasht» these are old parts of Avesta “we pray Mazda’s Farr which is powerful, bright, adroit, deft, pious which is superior from all creatures”(Zamyad yasht, Part 9). Zamyad yasht`s alludes show that these parts are composed in west mountains of Iran (Persia) specially «Zabolestan/ Sistan/ Nimrouz». In Zamyad yasht more than praying Farr so many mountains of Iran has been alluded. […]

Ashi: Celestial Goddess of Ancient Persia


Cassiopeia/ Cassiopee constellation is one of the constellations that are near Pole Star and can be seen at all night at northern celestial. In contrast with Pole Star Cassiopeia is proportion of Ursa Minors and Ursa Major these two are always rolling at tow sides of Pole Star. Cassiopeia’s second and third groups of stars are more than other constellations so as a result it is one of the brightest constellations of celestial. Some of the stars of this constellation used to be more shinning and some of them had supernovas. One of these supernovas was Brahe that around 400 years ago suddenly it became so shiny that it could be seen even at daylights. Today knowledge has shown that Kappa star of Cassiopeia was the shiniest star of whole celestial but its exact time hasn’t been defined yet .Powerful radiation fountains which are the result of Cosmology exploitations at Cassiopeia constellation has been founded. […]

A fight between “Teshtar” and “Apoush” in sky


About 4000 years ago, Persian had too low rain and whether at that time so hot as a result some beliefs had grown up at ancient Persia (Iran). One of beliefs says “Teshtar” (Sirius) is responsible for raining and its opposite is “Apoush” (Cabalatrab/ Antares). In “Teshtar Yasht” (a part of Avesta) these two stars fight with each other (this is one of the oldest plays of mankind history). At this play some times Teshtar wins and sometimes Apoush. Here is a question what is the reason of growing such beliefs? For finding its answer we should be familiar with their annual rising and setting. […]

Mithra And it’s Association with Archeological Polar Star


Name of Mithra has been streamer at Persian (Iranian) culture and literature and by passing time have made a deep association with “Mehrizad” God of Kindness, Sun and Friendship. But before it’s activities get so vary it’s most popular character was it endless brightness. Sources that we have show that this archeological star was the source of beliefs about Mithra. And for ancients who had a favor on cosmology a star hat never sets was very important and interesting. […]

Weeks in Ancient Persia


Week and weekdays have important application in calendar systems both solar and lunar. Even though world’s different calendars vary in many calculation details and other features, the method of reckoning based on seven-day week is the same in all of them. We know that number of days in a month or in a year is different in each calendar, even in the same calendar months different number of days (some months have 30 days some 31), and we also know that during the history there have been reforms to change this. […]

Gâhanbâr Calendar The Oldest Calendar that has Found in Persia


In Old Persian (Iranian) epigones there are six yearly celebrations that are called “Gâhanbâr celebrations”. Name and time of these celebrations has been recorded differently that shows their long history. These celebrations they start at summer. In order are these: “Midyu- shem” that means middle of summer. “Patyah- shahim” means end of summer. “Ayâthrema” coldness starting, middle of fall. “Mid- yârem” means middle of year, end of fall (year starts in summer). “Hamaspat- madam” that means equality between day and night or equality between coldness and warmness, end of winter, spring equinox. “Midyu- zarem” means middle of green season or spring. […]

Anahita


In Iranian (Persian) believes star or as it’s called today planet Anahid/ Anahita/ Nahid (Venus) is flowing water’s star and so Nahid`s temples have been made near rivers and water fountains. And also there is another character which as a result waters and its fountains and aqueducts belonged to her and she was supporter of them. The reason why in Iranian traditional believes water fountains were symbols of Anahid`s place and men can not go there is based on this believe. […]

Aryans’ Immigration in Relation to the Ancient Seas and the Weather of Iran


The overwhelming majority of historical sources regard the people of present Persia (Iran) descendants of Aryans who are thought to have migrated from some far northern land towards south including the present land of Persia, destroyed native people and civilizations and replaced them. The date of this great migration is speculated to be sometimes between 3000 to 5000 years ago. Similarly, speculations on the point of origin of this great history-making shift includes a vast area from west, north and center of Europe to east of Asia, Baltic Sea, Scandinavian peninsula, north plains of central Asia and Caucasus, Siberia and even the north pole. This very disagreement and lack of unquestionable evidences on the exact geographical homeland of these Aryans point to the soundlessness of such speculations. Most of contemporary historical texts end the account of the land of origin and this great migration with a few short obscure and inexact statements without giving any sound reasons for such an important move. They usually suffice to present a map with a few large arrows drawn from Siberia to Caspian Sea and central plains of Persia. […]

Аревнейшая Солнечная Обсерватория в Иране


Зaниси “Aвесты” и других текстов имеют связаны с древней энохой ахеменидов, и в каждой из ныхскрыть тайны. Накше Рустам – это название местности в провинции Фарс в шести килуметрах к северу от “Тахте Джамшида”. В этом месте в сердцевине горы Севанда высечены четыре гробницы, относящиеся к царям ахеменидов. В нижней ее части имеются несколько разукрашеных камней, сохранившихся со времен сасанидов и даже со времен эламской государственности. Именно из- за наличия этих изображений даная местность называется Накше Рустам. На некотором расстоянии от горы расположено строение солнечной обсерватории Накше Рустам. Оно представляет собой иостройку, которая была воздвигнута в приод ахеменидов. […]

Zoroaster’s Kaba, in Naqsh-e Rustam


An Iranian archaeologist has rejected the theory describing the Achaemenid era monument Zoroaster’s Kaba as an ancient government archive, saying that the monument is the world’s most unique calendrical and astronomical building. “At the end of Shahrivar (the sixth month of the Iranian calendar, August 23-September 22) we can determine exactly the day of the month by the light shed by the sun on Zoroaster’s Kaba. It has been used for daily needs, determining the time of cultivating crops, and collecting taxes,” Reza Moradi Ghiasabadi explained. […]

Nimrouz: The Middle of Ancient World


Nimrouz land (Sistan/ Zarang/ Zavolestan) has a deep and long bond with Persian (Iranian) astronomy and calendar. It’s different names come from its astronomical applications. The name of “Zabol/ Zavol” had relation with sun reaching to zenith and it’s measurement as the origin for day and night and the word “Mezvaleh” which means sun index came from the same root. It seems that the word “Zarang” (in Achaemenid cuneiform script: “Zaraka”) has a relation with “halt” and “time” and the most important of all, the word “Nimrouz” roots from the ancient belief and wisdom that the “Nimrouzan” line or the meridian passes through this region. […]



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