June 14, 2006
Reza Moradi Ghiasabadi
Translator: Saam Sheykh-ol Eslami
Name of Mithra has been streamer at Persian (Iranian) culture and literature and by passing time have made a deep association with “Mehrizad” God of Kindness, Sun and Friendship. But before it’s activities get so vary it’s most popular character was it endless brightness.
Sources that we have show that this archeological star was the source of beliefs about Mithra. And for ancients who had a favor on cosmology a star hat never sets was very important and interesting.
I think the origin of belief about Mithra among ancient Iranian and Indians was about one polar star and two constellations Ursa Major and Ursa Minor.
We know that polar of sky rounds through a 28,500 year circle over polar of ecliptic and today is near Alpha (α) Ursa Minor (Polaris) star. But about five thousand years ago skies polar was near Thuban (Dhikh) star from Draco constellation .At that time this star was polar star of earth and like our time polar star was static without any move and was at all nights of year and never sets or rises. This star is located between Ursa Major and Ursa Minor ant these two constellations rounding around it at each 24 hours. This rounding draw crossover at sky and we know it as Mithra carrousel.
At some of old paintings Ursa Major constellation is drawn like symbols of Mithra with its four horses. And also Mithra’s pictures were shown like a shining man that has rays around his head. After five thousands years ago and when this star make a distance from polar sky this distance make this star to round around polar sky area and that’s were the believe about circle of kindness/ oath came.
At Iranians old writing it’s been used for copula on top of tabernacles and one point that takes attention is they look alike polar star.
At “Mehr Yasht” of Avesta these phrases “Standing at highness of skies” and “Never sleeping” is a clear pointing to polar star: “We pray Mithra owner of wealds that highness which is standing at top of sky and is a non sleeping and powerful keeper . . . Mithra looks everybody with never closing eyes.”
And because of this reason Mithra was the exertion of earth and sky and from the viewpoint of a man standing at earth all stars and constellations round around it Mithra is called organizer of cosmology and is responsible for controlling and rulings world. And after that she became brightness of god, trueness, oath, and also kindness. Ferdinand Justi has translated Mithra to ever brightness in Iranisches Namenbuch.
After some while a religious based on these believes had made “Praying Mithra” it is totally different from Mithraism. Mithraism is it’s western version and at first century before Christ reaches to west Minor Asia and Rome empire (during Parthian) this religion was speeded at all over western countries by some legionnaires and after that Christians inherit most of its believes.
Here I should say some points that word of before Christ or after Christ for this calendar is wrong because name of Jesus were added to this calendar at fourth century by religious department and at Iranian writing Asar al-baqiyah by Abou Rayhan Birouni era of this calendar is based on sun not Jesus. this name has relations with “Yalda” and night of Sun born and at another view as Birouni says name of the first month of year at Sistan (east of Iran) calendar which started at winter was “Christ” that may be word Christmas has come from this word.