June 26, 2006
Reza Moradi Ghiasabdi
Traslated: Sam Sheikh-ol Eslami
About 4000 years ago, Persian had too low rain and whether at that time so hot as a result some beliefs had grown up at ancient Persia (Iran). One of beliefs says “Teshtar” (Sirius) is responsible for raining and its opposite is “Apoush” (Cabalatrab/ Antares). In “Teshtar Yasht” (a part of Avesta) these two stars fight with each other (this is one of the oldest plays of mankind history). At this play some times Teshtar wins and sometimes Apoush.
Here is a question what is the reason of growing such beliefs? For finding its answer we should be familiar with their annual rising and setting.
Sirius is the shiniest star at whole sky and is located at Canis Major Zodiac. These days this star rise in the middle of Persia at summer (first of Mordad month/ latte of July). But four thousand years ago it’s first rise was at first of summer (late of Jun) and the name of this month “Tir” was another form of “Teshtar” which is related to this event.
At “Teshtar Yasht” (in Avesta) there is full description of this star: “we pray Teshtar which is shiny and great star. A star that has shiny and white rays. That gives silent and good houses. That pure shining which the origins of water.
At the other side is “Apoush” (Calabalatrab /Antares) which is located at Scorpios zodiac and has red rays. This star was seen at hot summers in Persia. Mostly at first hours of night. Distance of these two was about three zodiac signs and 90 degrees.
Trait’s of these two stars shows us the origins of beliefs about their endless fight. Apoush was seen during summer nights so as a result ancient people taught whether warmness was related to this star to this star was warming the whether. Specilally that the zodiac that this star is in it is called Scorpios which is related to warm deserts. But as days pass and rainy day come Apoush goes higher and Sirius come closer till at last days of 4000 years ago summers, Apoush reaches to its highest point and never seen again after that Teshtar became master at all raining season. Their fight has been described at Teshtar Yasht.
This event happens one more time at next spring. At last days of spring Teshtar goes away and Apoush became the master of hot seasons. Beating Apoush has described sadly at Avesta by these words: “At that time Apoush and Teshtar fight for three days.
Apoush beats Teshtar and became the master and Teshtar says to Ahura Mazda (God) bad for me bad for rains and plants you will have terrible days”.
Writer thinks that because rising of Teshtar (Sirius) and reaching to warm seasons where at the same time and also it’s setting and raining were also at the same time in Iranian believes this star was responsible for raining and also Apoush (Cabalatrab) was exactly it’s opposite so it was making hot whether.
It seems the summer was also start of new year because after describing of Testar defeating Apoush we see this at Avesta: “After that Teshtar will be happy and says good o you waters and plants now rivers are full of water and go throw plants. After it’s rising may be there is good or bad year will Iranian lands have a good year? . . .” (Avesta text is from book “Avesta-e kohan from this writer).
And also with some other signs we assume that maybe there was an especial ceremony over high land and mountains and people were waiting for Sirius’s first rising .this ceremony was related to Tirgan ceremony that happens at thirteen’s of Tir (2th Apr.). but today has lost it’s usability.
At Avesta there is another star called “Satavis” and with it’s description we assume that it was Alcor it’s degree is the same as Sirius but in lower parts of latitude almost 33 degrees (at southern part of Iran) Satavis at Avesta is co operator of Sirius and it’s job is sending water to other countries. “It send water to whole seven countries for using other peoples.” As we see in Persian (Iranian) prays they want happiness for all people not just themselves.